May 23, 1940


George Stanley White

National Government

Mr. G. S. WHITE (Hastings-Peterborough):

Mr. Speaker, as a new member in the House of Commons I realize fully my position in rising to take part in the debate. I agree most heartily with the observations just made by the hon. member for Souris (Mr. Ross). It seems strange that as soon as he mentioned the words "political expediency," there was immediate applause from the government benches.

It is not necessary to dwell on the seriousness of the hour, and I say to private members on the government benches that now is the time for them to show their loyalty.


An hon. MEMBER:



George Stanley White

National Government


We of the opposition have duties to perform, too. We have the duty to our constituents who sent us here to reflect in the House of Commons their opinions and desires. It is not my intention in any way to rehash or go over the issues involved in the election for, after all, the past is gone. Whatever the mistakes have been, and whatever bad judgment has been shown, are of little importance at this time. The present and the future are our vital concern.

But even to-day can we, the members of the House of Commons, truly satisfy ourselves that, even at this important hour, the present government is making every possible war effort. Speaking for myself-and I say this with deep regret-I have absolutely no confidence that the government is capable of arousing even within its own ranks, let alone throughout the nation, the action and the speed necessary to cope with the daily increasing threat to our very existence. This hour calls for inspiring leadership, for complete harmony and unity, for the thrusting aside of petty and insignificant matters and of forgetting all past differences so that we, the elected members, may in the brief time remaining at our disposal mobilize with lightning speed all our resources for the defence of Canada.

War Appropriation-Mr. White

The press of yesterday and to-day which mentions names such as Arras, Vimy, the Somme and Abbeville, must recall stirring memories to the minds of many hon. members who were the veterans of another war, men who formed part of that glorious Canadian corps which served from 1914 to 1918, men who took part in writing a glorious page in history. These men will recall other dark days in March and April of 1918, and they will remember with pride the message that came from Sir Arthur Currie when he said: "We have our backs to the wall and we must fight it out". Everyone knows how the Canadian corps of that day met that challenge and how they fought it out. Once more we have our backs to the wall, and I am confident that once more we will meet the challenge and fight it out.

I represent the counties of Hastings and Peterborough. To-day we have in England with the first division the Hastings and Prince Edward regiment, one of the finest regiments that ever left these shores. It is simply disgraceful that so little is being done in the way of recruiting in these counties which made such a wonderful contribution from 1914 to 1918 in men, munitions and supplies. I wonder if the members of this house realize that in Ontario east of Toronto there is only one rifle infantry regiment, and that in all that area there is only one place where a man may enlist in such a regiment. That point is at Picton, a most inconvenient place. That is in the riding of my hon. friend (Mr. Tustin), but I said "most inconvenient", not "most insignificant".

At the present time recruiting at this point may be carried on for a week, and then the office is closed down. It may interest hon. members to know that there has been no recruiting at this point, the only recruiting depot east of Toronto, since May 11, and the depot is still closed. Any man who wants to enlist in a rifle regiment must, if he resides east of Toronto, travel or hitch-hike hundreds of miles to Picton, and then when he arrives there he may find there is no recruiting and be told to come back the following week. In many instances the man's name is taken and he is told he will be advised when recruiting will begin again. Is it the policy of this government at the present time to have only one place where a man may enlist in an area covering hundreds of square miles east of the city of Toronto?

In my riding there are hundreds of young Canadians who have been trying for months to join the Royal Air Force, and the best they have been able to accomplish is to have their names taken and be told that they will

[Mr. White.!

be advised at a later date. There is no action which the government has taken which has so discouraged the young men of Canada more than this action in regard to recruiting. In the small village of Madoc in which I reside there is an armoury in which from three to 500 men could be trained. That armoury has been locked up since October 1, 1939. In that armoury there is not a single rifle, a single round of ammunition, a single machine gun or any equipment or war supplies of any kind. All the equipment consists of is two dozen chairs and a few tables. Why? Because the equipment which had been there for years and which had been brought home in 1918 was used to equip the Hastings and Prince Edward regiment. That regiment took this antique equipment back to England.

In the village of Norwood in my riding, there is another armouiy in which 500 men could be trained. That armoury has also been locked up since the beginning of the war and contains no rifles or equipment of any kind. In Peterborough and Belleville are located two of the finest armouries in Ontario, but they have not been used in any way. I ask -the government, why are they not taking advantage of these buildings? Why does this condition exist? It certainly is not because of a lack of recruits, because recruits can be had at any time.

It is not because of a lack of capable officers. In the small village of only 1,000 people in which I reside there are ten qualified officers, five of whom have had overseas training. All these officers have been connected for years with the non-permanent militia and are well qualified to drill troops, instruct and lecture in signalling practice, bayonet fighting and gas warfare, as well as machine-gun practice, military tactics and military organization. In addition we have many non-commissioned officers who are fully trained and capable of performing all military duties. These officers and non-commissioned officers are most willing and anxious to give their services.

The manner in which this government has conducted recruiting has convinced me more than anything else that the public have no confidence whatever in the present war effort. From the press we learn that various veterans' organizations have offered their services to the government, but- these services have not been accepted. Much has been said already in this house about "fifth column" activities. I was interested in the statement made a few days ago by the Prime Minister (Mr. Mackenzie King) to the effect that all "fifth column" activities were being checked carefully and handled by the mounted police.

War Appropriation-Mr. Graydon

I should like to bring to the attention of this house a most serious condition which exists in the county of Hastings. In that county there are about fifty-five miles of a power line which runs from the Gatineau to Leaside, about thirty-five miles of which run through a most sparsely settled section of the county. Yet there is not one guard of any kind to protect this line. There are no soldiers within a radius of 100 miles. The provincial hydro commission has a maintenance man who patrols a beat of thirty-nine miles. Can hon. members grasp that? One man patrolling a beat of thirty-nine miles! That is all the protection there is for this vital power line.

It would be the simplest matter in the world for one man to wreck the whole system. I am told that if this line were wrecked, at least two-thirds of Toronto and a large portion of eastern and western Ontario would be without power or light. Within the last month a foreigner was charged in the police court at Marmora with removing brace arms from these hydro towers. When addressing the court at the conclusion of the evidence, the crown attorney said to the magistrate that this was a direct case of sabotage. And yet no action has been taken by anyone to protect or guard this highly vulnerable power line. I might explain to members of the house that the method of sabotaging these towers is to remove certain braces and cross-arms, or to saw partly through certain girders and then leave the rest to nature, so that at the first storm or strong wind the towers will be completely wrecked. Throughout these two counties there are many mines of great importance in war time and many important industrial works, and yet there is not a single guard of any kind.

The huge sum of money which is being asked for by this resolution should be spent within the Dominion of Canada. So far as the amount itself is concerned it is of little importance because what does it matter what amount we spend to-day if we are in danger of losing our freedom and all the privileges we have enjoyed under the British crown, if we are in danger of being reduced to actual slavery? In these circumstances the amount matters little.

Like my hon. friend the member for Vancouver South (Mr. Green), I am going to make a few suggestions to the government:

1. That all militia units throughout Canada be recruited to full strength at once, and if clothing is not available, that arm bands be used.

2. That with all speed all war equipment be manufactured and used to equip fully all overseas troops; then huge stores of same be set up in Canada.

3. That a home defence corps be organized and trained.

4. That the cadet units of high schools and collegiates be used in any possible manner, such as for instruction and organization purposes.

5. That provision be made by counties or districts for the protection and guarding against sabotage of all vital industries, public utilities and military objectives within such county or district.

6. That all armouries now locked up or partly used be utilized to the full degree.

7. That the services of all war veterans be used for training and guard duties.

8. Registration of all man-power and other resources.

9. Immediate internment of all aliens and enemy sympathizers. That a local tribunal be set up in each county or district under the local county judge to deal with internment, so that this can be carried out with speed and efficiency.

10. That the government consider what steps can be taken to control the broadcasting of enemy propaganda from American stations.

11. That the government consider the passing of measures to provide the death penalty for espionage, sabotage or "fifth column" activities.

And lastly, that in the grave situation to-day the government consider invoking the provisions of the Militia Act, which provides for the calling-up of all able-bodied men for home defence.


Gordon Graydon

National Government


Mr. Speakei, the house to-day is in a very serious, very sober and perhaps I might add, a very militant mood. None of us has witnessed in our time in this house members more bent upon determined and aggressive action by the government than we find them in this chamber to-day, and in that they but reflect the opinions which are being so audibly expressed by the people of the country who are now thoroughly aroused and fully conscious of the import of the present emergency Words seem so futile in these days. Routine parliamentary proceedings seem so lamentably out of place. Debates seem so irksome in the face of recent developments which are so vital to the very existence of our nation and of our empire.

The government has asked us to forget the past, with its pathway strewn with examples of what many of our citizens regard as instances of puny and inadequate preparedness. But few, Mr. Speaker, will be able to erase it from memory. This afternoon, however, I think it is the sole duty of the House

War Appropriation-Mr. Gray don

of Commons to take the government at their word and to forget the past, because it is our duty to press by every means within our power the administration into a more aggressive and a more determined prosecution of the war both on our home front and on the front overseas. To-day only the present and the future count, and both of them count very heavily.

I now propose to make certain insistent proposals to the government. My words will be few, but I trust they will be emphatic. They are made in the spirit of a united Canada which has its mind made up that the empire must and will march on to ultimate victory in this conflict. Stripped of all unnecessary words, I have the following to propose.

First, that the preservation of the Liberal party, of the Conservative party or of any other party in this house, is of small consequence. Regarded as a political entity the fate of no party is of any consequence to-day when forces from without our frontiers threaten to destroy the very democracy upon which *our parties operate. National government-

I know I am not going to have the support of every member of this house when I say this-was desirable in my opinion last September when war broke out, and it has become more desirable in every month which has followed the declaration of war right down to this date. In my opinion, Mr. Speaker, it is now the only answer to our urgent national needs.

Second, no man and no woman in Canada should be without his or her place in our national war plans. Our people are crying out loudly to-day for an opportunity to serve Canada and serve the empire in her day of need. Continuing unemployment in time of war has seemed to me during these past months not only to be unnatural but to present a farcical situation in our land. In this country the wheels of industry should have been humming twenty-four hours a day and not a man should have been out of work since the war began. We have not all realized, Mr. Speaker, that we are at war, and it was the government's obligation to give us the lead so that we might as a nation be more fully conscious of our exact position. Every Canadian must now put his or her shoulder to the wheel without a moment's further delay.

Third, let us look more intently to our home defence as well as to our overseas plans. There is a definite and immediate duty resting on us to protect our people, our homes and our industries against "fifth column," [DOT]"Trojan horse," and sabotage operations with-

in our own borders. The citizens at large, and particularly the men who served so gallantly in the last war, are demanding to-day, in terms the urgency of which I have never in my life known to be equalled, that the government of this country give them their place in plans to render impotent any "boring" operations which may be conducted by enemy sympathizers within our gates.

Fourth, the contribution of Canada towards the maintenance of universal freedom and liberty must be more than merely a war effort. I confess I never liked that word "effort." It sounds too much like an attempt being made at something. There must be, from this moment, a determined, aggressive and ceaseless hurling of every ounce of energy which we as a nation can muster; for nothing less than the best we can do is good enough for Canada, as a nation and a part of the British commonwealth of nations, in this hour of national and empire trial.

In conclusion may I say that I am deadly in earnest. I speak with a deeper feeling than has permeated me in any address I have given this house these past five years. I plead with the government for a yet more vigorous prosecution of its war plans. This is the time for public and personal sacrifice on the part of everyone of us. The day of thinking in terms of political parties, of personal convenience and of selfish ambitions has gone. The hour is far too serious for that. With that thought foremost in my mind, I urge with all the emphasis at my command, that the Prime Minister and his government abandon now their one-party administration of this war-I never liked it. I like it less this afternoon-and, following Britain's lead, give Canadians new confidence in this hour of trial and need, and unite our political forces to form a strong reorganized coalition government.


Liguori Lacombe

Independent Liberal

Mr. LIGUORI LACOMBE (Laval-Two Mountains) (Translation):

Mr. Speaker, I

have listened with a great deal of interest to the remarks made by the hon. member (Mr. Graydon) who has just resumed his seat. I regret to say, however, that my opinions do not at all coincide with his. Having no intention of prolonging the present debate, I shall be brief. _

Canada's participation in the war is and must remain free and voluntary. Such is the wish of the people of this country, a wish that was indeed most clearly expressed last March 26, as regards our war effort and the nature thereof. Never before has a government been endorsed to a similar degree by the electorate. The right hon. the Prime Minister (Mr. MAY 23, 1940

War Appropriation-Mr. Lacombe

Mackenzie King) won an unprecedented victory, and the Canadian people returned him to power because they realized that he and his government stood for a policy of moderation, freedom and voluntary assistance. Thus must we consider these three ideas as a synthesis of the returned government's election programme, not to mention the preservation of Canadian unity. That unity must be safeguarded at all cost, in the name of liberty, justice and right. The ultimate victory of the allies depends largely upon the preservation of national unity in democratic countries, as well as upon the union of all hearts and minds toward the realization of the powerful and inspiring ideal represented by the victory of right over might.

If ever any government should endeavour to impose conscription on this country, it would find itself opposed by every true champion of Canadian unity.

The bloody conflict of which unfortunate Europe is once again the theatre is but a page, the most harrowing and darkest perhaps, of the troubled history of heroic and noble France whose soil has withstood time and again the invasion of barbaric hordes. On behalf of the motherland, the allied armies are desperately striving to triumph over injustice and barbarism. Every man worthy of the name most strongly desires to see the forces of liberty and civilization decisively victorious over anarchy, tyranny and barbarism. Gigantic struggle, wherein the very survival of a civilization ennobled by centuries of sacrifice and genius is at stake. Alarming fray, wherein the terrifying roar of motorized columns will never blot out the agony of the heroic dead, whose lips still frame the glorious words of victory and peace!

Mr. Speaker, while England and France are far advanced on the path of sacrifice, Canada, notwithstanding the opinions expressed by some hon. members, has done and is still doing her important share. According to the right hon. Prime Minister's recent statement, Canada's participation in the war will cost her, for the financial year 1940-41, the sum of $2,000,000 a day. Should this fail to satisfy the extremists, I wonder if we are not entitled in turn to suspect their loyalty to Canada. Do they believe that a bankrupt Canada would be of use to the allied cause? Have they given a moment's thought to the after-war period? Have they ever considered our financial and economic position? Does the agriculture and labour problem mean nothing to them?

Mr. Speaker, even in this difficult hour, let us not deceive ourselves. Let us not allow

ourselves to be carried away. Let us keep calm so that we may consider with wisdom and moderation Canada's interest before all others.

I mentioned the agricultural problem. The day is not far when the allied armies and countries will turn to Canada for their food supplies. We should therefore speed up still further the reorganization of our agricultural production in all its branches. The rising cost of living makes it imperative for governments to give all possible aid to agriculture. Our whole economic structure is based on agriculture. More than ever, in this extremely critical situation, should we encourage, develop and promote agricultural production.

In closing these few remarks, I am happy to say that I still look at the future with optimism. It is through optimism, hope and faith that truth will triumph over error, right over might, civilization over barbarism and justice over tyranny.

One word in conclusion. In her participation in the war, may Canada keep from excessive zeal and waste. May our lawmakers ever keep engraved in their minds and in their hearts the image of the Canadian fatherland. May the soil of our country continue to be the granary of the world and the almost inexhaustible source of the natural wealth of which the need is at present so great. May our land continue, under the kindly eye of an admirable Providence, to spread life, fecundity and happiness among the peoples of the world, but especially in Canada, our beloved country, so badly in need of them.

The speech from the throne ends at every session of parliament with the words: "I pray that Divine Providence may guide and bless your deliberations." If there was ever a time when legislators needed light and strength, it is the present difficult moment when the fate of the continent of Europe and the economic future of Canada seem to be at stake. May God preserve Canada from downfall and ruin! May He keep our beloved Canada united, great and prosperous! May He allow the triumph of civilization over the forces which barbarism has let loose upon the world.



A message from His Excellency the Administrator transmitting estimates for the financial year ending March 31, 1941, was presented by Hon. J. L. Ralston (Minister of Finance), read by Mr. Speaker to the house, and referred to the committee of supply. At six o'clock the house took recess.

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner After Recess The house resumed at eight o'clock.



The house resumed consideration of the motion of Mr. Ralston that the house go into committee to consider the following resolution: That sums not _ exceeding $700,000,000 be granted to His Majesty towards defraying any expenses that may be incurred by or under the authority of the governor in council during the year ending 31st March, 1941, for- (a) the security, defence, peace, order and welfare of Canada; (b) the conduct of naval, military and air operations in or beyond Canada; (c) promoting the continuance of trade, industry and business communications, whether by means of insurance or indemnity against war risk or in any other manner whatsoever; and (d) the carrying out of any measures deemed necessary or advisable by the governor in council in consequence of the existence of a state of war. _ With provision also empowering the governor in council to raise by way of loan under the provisions of the Consolidated Revenue and Audit Act, 1931, such sum or sums of money, not exceeding in the whole the sum of $700,000,000 as may be required for the purpose of defraying the aforesaid expenses, the principal and interest of any 6uch loan to be a charge upon and payable out of the consolidated revenue fund.


James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)


Hon. J. G. GARDINER (Minister of Agriculture) :

Mr. Speaker, as was stated this afternoon, it is most difficult to proceed to a .discussion of past events and present and future possibilities in connection with agriculture in Canada when the war news is of the kind reported to the house to-day. Perhaps the chief reason why we are able to carry on this discussion may be found in the history of Great Britain; and our knowledge of the fact that on at least three previous occasions the dogged determination of Britain to preserve her institutions for succeeding generations has triumphed, leads us to believe that again she will find a way. The destruction of the Spanish armada; the defeat of Napoleon, and the final triumph of the allies over WTilhelm II in the last war all give testimony to sustain the hope, which becomes faith, in the success of Britain in the final outcome of the present war. So it becomes my task to outline to the house the effect that preparation for war and the coming of war has had upon agriculture in Canada; to outline the efforts made to meet pre-war difficulties as well as those made to meet the immediate difficulties brought by war. In order that I may place the records correctly and completely upon Hansard I hope

(Mr. Lacombe.]

you will bear with me, Mr. Speaker, if I follow rather closely the notes I have prepared.

A world war is always preceded by a period of preparation, and hence a period of war fear, the effects of which are first felt by agriculture. When a nation begins to make preparation to go to war, one of the first considerations is food, which is produced almost exclusively by farmers. If a country has, in time of peace, the essential food products within its boundaries, it is in a relatively strong position in preparing for war. If much of its food is, in time of peace, obtained from outside its boundaries, that country must do one of two things, or a combination of two things, in preparation for war; it must either increase its production at home or protect its trade routes to countries from which the food can be obtained, or do both.

The three countries which have been making the greatest preparations for war during the last ten years are Germany, France and Britain. Over fifteen years ago Germany began to prepare for war. Her endeavour was to have the necessary food products within her own boundaries when war came. France looked on for a few years and then, fearing that when Germany became strong her desire for revenge might turn her attentions westward, more than ten years ago turned her attention to food production within her own borders. Britain did not take action in this direction until about eight years ago, but during the past six years has been employing many of the devices used by the others to increase the production of food within her own borders. Canadian farmers in the past had been accustomed to sell the greater part of their surplus farm products in the three countries I have mentioned and in the United States. To the extent that these three countries increased their production of meat, cereals, dairy products, poultry and fruit, the three great branches of agriculture in this country were bound to suffer.

The net result has been that during the greater part of the last ten years prices of farm products in Canada have been abnormally low. I think I would be safe in saying that for the ten year period from 1931 to 1940, prices of farm products reached an alltime low, if all the factors of relative values were taken into consideration. My contention, therefore, is that the Canadian farmer entered into this war under very unfavourable circumstances, largely because those countries now at war have been preparing for it for a period of years. To emphasize the point I am trying to make I should like to give this record of the prices during the five years pre-

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

ceding the last war, the five years of the last war and the five years preceding the present war, on the five products of greatest export. These prices are for the best grade at Toronto for all products with the exception of wheat, and for No. 1 northern at Fort William for wheat.

1910-1914 1915-1919 1935-1939(Aver- (Aver- (Aver-age) age) age)Cents Cents CentsWheat 100-6 205-4 100-2Cheese 13-24 22-06 12-99Hogs 8-88 14-96 8-98Cattle 6-77 10-36 6-46Apples (Barrel) 461-0 683-0 582-0

From this table it will be seen that the prices f r the five years preceding this war are almost exactly the same as they were for the five years preceding the last war. It will be acknowledged, however, that the purchasing power of the dollar has been lower during the last five year period. Fear of war and preparation for it have been the underlying cause of economic difficulties in Canada as well as in other countries, more particularly as related to agriculture.

Before going on to deal with the situation ereated by the war, it might be well for me to deal shortly with our experience of prices in the last war. There was an increase in prices during the last war as compared with the previous five year period, of approximately 50 per cent on apples, 60 per cent on cattle, 75 per cent on hogs, 60 per cent on cheese and 100 per cent on wheat. It is well to recall, however, that there was no unusual increase in the prices of any of these products until the war had been going on for two full years. In the second year of the last war wheat averaged SI.13 a bushel; cheese, 16-4 cents a

Wheat, bushels

Oats, bushels

Barley, bushels

Rye, bushels

Flaxseed, bushels

Hogs, numbers

Cattle, numbers

Calves, numbers

Sheep and lambs, numbers

Butter, pounds

Cheese, pounds

Tobacco, pounds

Apples, barrels

Honey, pounds

pound; hogs, 8-5 cents a pound; cattle, 8-04 cents a pound; and apples, $4.96 a barrel. I think there are two principal reasons why prices of food products do not rise in the first year of a war. The first reason is that countries preparing for war store food in many forms. The second reason is that often war does not interfere with the increased production of food in the combating countries during the first year. These increases in production which take place preceding a war are usually encouraged at points safest from destruction by marching armies. After war has been under way for a year and armies move across areas of production, demands become greater for the surpluses of countries far removed.

The detrimental effects of war preparation and of war itself upon farm prices has been accentuated by the fact that when war broke out, Canadian farmers were harvesting the second largest wheat crop on record. Heavy fall marketing of hogs and poultry was in prospect. Butter and cheese production was at a higher level than in the year previous. Apple and other fruit crops, as well as vegetable crops, were normal in yield. A record tobacco crop was expected. The production was higher for 1939 than the five-year average in every important farm product used for food except mutton, lamb and honey.

I should like to place on Hansard a table comparing the production of crops and the output of live stock in 1939, with the previous five-year average. May I have the consent of the house?


Georges Parent (Speaker of the Senate)



Consent is granted.


James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)




1939 previous 5 years

489,623,000 263,444,000

384,407,000 325,414,000

103,147,000 81,001,000

15,307,000 7,070,400

2,169,000 1,265,800

3,706,179 3,403.048

1,183,305 1,151,444

795,402 691,050

753,062 802,056

266.879.000 248,128,000

120,976,000 114,166,000

109,846,000 62,762,000

5,468,400 4,700,520

28,856,100 29,387,000

Farm prices just prior to the outbreak of the war were at a very low level, and indications at that time pointed to a low net return to farmers, despite bountiful yields, even had there been no war. The immediate effect of the war was a rise in grain and live stock prices and later an increase in prices of

dairy products. In August, 1939, the index of the wholesale prices of farm products stood at 58-4, as compared with 72-4 for all commodities. By March, 1940, the farm products index had risen by 12-9 points to 71-3, as compared with a rise of 10-8 points in the general index to a total of 83-2.

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

The following figures will cultural products:

indicate the monthly change in the prices of the main agri-










Butter, Mont. c. lb. Cheese, Mont. c. lb. Eggs, Mont. c. doz.

Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.1939 1939 1939 1939 1939 1940 1940 1940 1940c. bus. 54.9 73.9 70.3 70.5 82.4 82.8 83.8 87.0 89.2c. bus. 27.3 36.7 32.8 32.3 38.8 42.6 41.7 38.7 38.4c. bus. 32.3 45.3 42.0 41.5 47.3 49.0 49.9 48.7 50.0c. bus. 37.6 56.5 60.4 56.8 72.3 74.8 71.6 70.6 69.8c. bus. 130.0 166.0 167.9 158.3 177.0 193.7 191.9 204.2 223.6cwt. .. 6.37 7.30 7.19 7.27 7.48 7.47 7.17 7.23 7.17cwt. .. 7.85 8.60 8.57 8.73 8.94 9.07 9.00 9.03 8.5521.5 26.2 27.8 28.2 28.0 27.7 26.8 27.6 26.311.2 13.0 14.1 16.0 17.0 18.7 19.3 17.2 14.531.8 37.6 41.5 44.4 33.9 27.0 26.8 27.0

Very shortly after the war commenced, it became evident that the United Kingdom did not require some of our farm products. It was indicated that bacon, cheese and fibre flax would be needed, but there was some doubt about fresh fruit, tobacco and canned goods. Great Britain's purchasing programme is not only based upon her needs, but likewise influenced by the availability of exchange and shipping space, as well as by political and economic considerations, some of which were mentioned by one hon. member, I believe, this afternoon.

Before the war came, the government had reorganized the Department of Agriculture into four divisions, with a director over each division. And I may say, Mr. Speaker, that this was done in spite of the fact that it was not advisable at that time to suggest that it had any relationship with war. It was done because this government realized, as a result of the experiences we were having in the British market, that something very unusual was going on in the continent of Europe. It was done, too, as a result of an action taken by the Prime Minister (Mr. Mackenzie King) which had some relationship to myself, as Minister of Agriculture, in the spring of 1936, when he said to me that he desired me to go to Great Britain and to Europe. When I asked him why, he replied, "No one can administer the Department of Agriculture in the Dominion of Canada, a country producing the large surpluses we produce for marketing in Great Britain or on the continent, without having an intimate knowledge of what is going on both in Great Britain and on the continent."

I repeat that as a result of the experience gained at that time we reorganized the department and changed it from a department composed of a dozen or more branches to a department organized under four directors, a deputy minister and an assistant deputy minister. The day war was declared, the principal officers of the department were called together to discuss the part to be played by agriculture in war activity. An agricultural supplies board

rMr. Gardiner.]

composed of six members, four of whom were the four directors I have just mentioned, was established. The board, together with the department, commenced immediately to deal with agricultural situations arising out of the war. Cooperation with provincial authorities, with advisory boards and with other dominion government bodies was sought from the beginning, to accomplish the following things:

1. To establish constructive direction for agricultural production;

2. To make available for export those commodities required by Great Britain;

3. To conserve essential supplies such as feeding materials, insecticides and fertilizers needed to meet the production of farm products in Canada, and

4. To assist in the marketing of surplus farm products.

Because it has been stated on a number of occasions outside the house that information and direction have not been given to those associated with agriculture, I desire to take some time to outline what has been done by the board under the direction of the department. A conference between the agricultural supplies board and representatives of the provincial departments of agriculture was held at Ottawa on September 27 and 28, 1939. At that conference Great Britain's probable needs of Canadian farm products were outlined and stress laid on so planning war-time activities that the agricultural industry should not be thrown out of gear when the war ended. Papers were presented by various officials indicating, commodity by commodity, the Canadian situation in 1939 as compared with that in 1914 with regard to available and prospective supplies of farm products likely to be needed. At the close of that conference provincial delegates agreed to cooperate in work undertaken by the board, as the central directive agency, and undertook the responsibility, in cooperation with producer representatives and dominion field men in their respective provinces, of implementing such production programmes as might become necessary.

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

Following the conference most of the provinces established special committees to collaborate with the board and to give local direction to programmes undertaken. Provinces reporting the establishment of such committees follow: .

Prince Edward Island, production service committee, October 5;

Nova Scotia, agricultural advisory committee, October 6;

New Brunswick, agricultural supplies committee, November, 17;

Manitoba, war-time agricultural committee, March, 1940;

Saskatchewan, provincial swine committee, November 15;

Alberta, agricultural production committee and swine production committee, November 14; crops production committee, December 9;

British Columbia, agricultural production committee, November 15.

Due perhaps to the close contact with dominion organizations made possible by their proximity to Ottawa, Quebec and Ontario apparently thought it unnecessary to establish special committees to collaborate with the board. There has been, however, continuous communication between the board and existing organizations in these provinces with respect to specific activities. If the house will permit, I shall be pleased to place the full personnel of those committees on Hansard for the information of hon. members:

Personnel Agricultural Supplies Board Establishment of board

The Agricultural Supplies Board was established September 9, 1939 (P.C. 2621), with the following named as members (P.C. 2622):

A. M. Shaw (Chairman), R. S. Hamer (later appointed Vice-Chairman), E. S. Archibald, G. B. Rothwell, A. T. Charron, J. M. Swaine, with Dr. H. Barton, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, a member ex officio. Following the death of G. B. Rothwell, on December 3, 1939, J. M. McCallum was appointed in his place, while J. G. Bouchard was named to replace A. T. Charron upon the latter's retirement on March 9, 1940. On September 27, 1939 (P.C. 2893), S. R. N. Hodgins was appointed Secretary. Or. November 17, 1939, J. R. Peet "on loan" from the marketing service, was named assistant secretary.

Special Committees

To assist in carrying out its duties, the Agricultural Supplies Board has established the following special committees:

September 22, 1939-Seed Supply Committee, consisting of N. Young (Chairman), T. M. Stevenson, W. T. G. Weiner, L. H. Newman, C. Sweet, L. S. McLaine; Secretary, A. M. W. Carter.

September 22, 1939-Fertilizer Supply Committee, consisting of G. S. Peart (Chairman), L. W. Wright, E. S. Hopkins, G. D. Mallory, 95826-12

W. H. Losee (the latter two from the Department of Trade and Commerce); Secretary, A. M. W. Carter.

October 7, 1939-Pesticide Supply Committee, consisting of G. S. Peart (Chairman), Arthur Gibson, H. T. Gussow, A. G. Locliead, C. H. Robinson, E. A. Watson, L. S. McLaine, G. D. Mallory, W. H. Losee; Secretary, A. M. W. Carter.

October 25, 1939-National Apple Advisory Committee, consisting of R. L. Wheeler (Chairman), M. V. McGuire (British Columbia), G. H. Laird (Ontario), W. G. Tawse (Quebec), F. W. Walsh (Nova Scotia); Secretary, L. F. Burrows.

Provincial Coommittees

Prince Edward Island-Production Service Committee, consisting of Hon. W. H. Dennis, Minister of Agriculture (Honorary Chairman), J. J. MacDonald, President of the Dairymen's Association (President), W. R. Shaw, Deputy Minister of Agriculture (Secretary, W. J. Reid, President of the Livestock Marketing Board, J. W. Boulter, Secretary of the Potato Growers' Association, Dr. J. A. Clarke, Superintendent of the Experimental Farm, F. M. Nash, Director, Poultry Division, Gordon MacMillan, Federal Seed Branch, J. A. Gillies, Secretary of the Livestock Marketing Board, Leonard MacDonald, Manager of the Egg and Poultry Association, W. D. Ross, Secretary of the Central Farmers' Institutes, W. L. Brenton, Superintendent of the Dairymen's Association,

S. C. Wright, Fieldman, Department of Agriculture, P. A. Maclsaac, President of the Swine Breeders' Association, S. D. Irvine, Sheep and Swine Division, L. K. Lockerby, Fieldman, Department of Agriculture, E. L. Eaton, Supervisor, Illustration Stations, Dr. E. S. Notting, Health of Animals Branch.

Nova Scotia-Agricultural Advisory Committee, consisting of Hon. John A. McDonald, Minister of Agriculture, Dr. W. V. Longley, Director of Extension, Principal L. T. Chapman, Dr. W. S. Blair, Secretary of the Nova Scotia Farmers' Association, Mr. W. W. Baird, Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm, Nappan, Mr. J. F. Haggerty, Senior Poultry Fieldman with the Federal Department, Mr. F. W. Walsh, Director of Marketing.

New Brunswick-Agricultural Supplies Committee, consisting of J. K. King, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Fredericton (Chairman),

T. G. Hetherington, Director Extension Division, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Fredericton, C. F. Bailey, Superintendent Experimental Station, Fredericton, representing Dominion Department of Agriculture officials in New Brunswick, one representative from the Farmers' Association of New Brunswick, to be designated "by the executive of this association, George Stephenson, Maugervill, Sun. Co., N.B., representing the New Brunswick Dairymen's Association, Roy Grant, Secretary Maritime Chamber of Agriculture, Moncton, F. L. Wood, Poultry Superintendent, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Fredericton, (Secretary).

Manitoba-War-Time Agricultural Committee, consisting of Hon. John Bracken, Premier of Manitoba, (honorary member), Hon. D. L. Campbell, Minister of Agriculture, (honorary member), D. G. McKenzie, Vice-president, United Grain Growers. Ltd.. Paul F. Bredt, President, Manitoba Pool Elevators, Ltd., Dr. J. A. Munn. President. Manitoba Federation of

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

Agriculture, Fred H. Downing, Manager, Canadian Livestock Co-operative (Western) Limited, Cecil Lamont, Director, Public Relations Department, North-West Line Elevators Association, W. S. Patterson. President, Manitoba Co-operative Poultry Marketing Association Limited, W. F. Popple. Manager. Manitoba Co-operative Wholesale, Ltd., G. W. Tovell, Secretary-Treasurer, Manitoba Co-operative Dairies, Limited, J. W. Braithwaite, President, Manitoba Co-operative Honey Producers, Limited, Rev. A. H. Laurin, President, Manitoba Beekeepers' Association, Roy McPhail, Manager, Canadian Livestock Sales Agencies. N. C. Mac-Kay, Director, Extension Service. Manitoba Department of Agriculture. W. H. French, Past President. Union of Manitoba Municipalities, C. B. Davidson, Secretary, Manitoba Federation of Agriculture, Mrs. E._L. Johnson, Vice-President. Manitoba Federation of Agriculture, Mrs. W. H. Hicks, President, Manitoba Women's Institutes. John Spalding, Secretary. Union of Manitoba Municipalities. Dr. W. H. Tulloch-Lee. President, Agricultural Societies' Advisory Board, W. L. McGregor, President, Manitoba Horse Breeders' Association. Rev. Adelard Coulture. Director of Social Organization for Diocese of St. Boniface, Alex McPhail, President. Manitoba Swine Breeders' Association, R. B. Hunter. President. Manitoba Sheep Breeders' Association, J. E. Crawford, President, Manitoba Dairy Cattle Breeders' Association. Les. Robson. President. Manitoba Cattle Breeders' Association. Andrew Turkeivich. Farmer, Winnipeg Beach, Dr. H. C. Grant, Professor of Economics. University of Manitoba, Dr. E. Cora Hind, Editorial Writer of the Winnipeg Free Press, Axel Bergkvist, Farmer, Sanford, Mrs. M. G. Ellis, Agricultural Editor, Family Herald and Weekly Star, Paul Kwiat-kowski, Farmer, Tolstoi, R. D. Colquette, Joint Editor, The Country Guide and Nor'-West Farmer. W. D. Strang. President, Dauphin Agricultural Society, Rev. A. Benoit, Parish Priest of St. Malo. Prof. A. V. Mitchener, Dean of Agriculture and Home Economies, University of Manitoba. J. T. Hull, Manitoba Editor of the Western Producer, Neil Wright, Director, Manitoba Federation of Agriculture, Dr. Kenneth Neatby, Director of Agricultural Department, Northwest Line Elevators Association, J. J. Siemens, Farmer, Altona.

Saskatchewan-Provincial Swine Committee, consisting of E. G. Harlton. President, Sask. Swine Breeders, W. B. Weightman, Vicepresident. Sask. Swine Breeders. E. F. Richardson. Director. Sask. Swine Breeders, C. M. Learmonth, Superintendent of Institutional Farms, J. H. Coles, Senior Livestock Fieldman, Production Service, J. G. Robertson, Sask. Livestock Commissioner. A. D. Munro, Dominion Markets Representative, E. E. Broclcelbank, Extension Dept. University of Sask., Prof. J. W. G. MacEwan, Professor of Animal Husbandry, University of Saskatchewan, A. H. 0. Colbert, Experimental Farm, Rosthern.

Alberta-Agricultural Production Committee, consisting of F. II. Reed, Superintendent of the Experimental Farm, Lacombe, representing Dominion Department of Agriculture agencies in the province of Alberta, Dean E. A. Howes, representing the University of Alberta, 0. S. Longman. Field Crops Commissioner, A. A. Campbell. Acting Live Stock Commissioner, R. M. Putnam, Director, Agricultural Extension (Secretary). J. R. Sweeney. Deputy Minister of Agriculture (Chairman).

fMr. Gardiner.]

Swine Production Committee, consisting of

N. Curtis, representing the Production Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture. Dr. R. D. Sinclair, University of Alberta, Prof. J. P. Sackville, University of Alberta, H. E. Wilson, Dominion Experimental Farm, Lacombe. Roy Marler. Swine Breeder, Bremner. William Hudson, Swine Breeder, Kathryn, Dr. P. R. Talbot, Provincial Veterinarian, A. A. Campbell, Acting Live Stock Commissioner, J. R. Sweeney, Deputy Minister of Agriculture.

Crops Production Committee, consisting of

O. S. Longman, Field Crops Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, (Chairman), Frank Foulds, District Supervisor, Plant Products Division, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Calgary, Dr. K. W. Neatby, Professor, Field Crops Department, University of Alberta. A. Craig Pierce, Farmer, Drumheller, L. C. Anderson, Farmer, Bittern Lake, Milton McKeen, Farmer, Sangudo.

British Columbia-Agricultural Production Committee, consisting of J. B. Munro, (Chairman), J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, Geo. H. Stewart, Statistician, Ernest MacGinnis, (Secretary).

Bacon Board-Appointed December 20, 1939 (P.C. 4249), consisting of Hon. J. G. Taggart, Minister of Agriculture for Saskatchewan, (Chairman), S. E. Todd, Secretary Industrial and Development Council of Canadian Meat Packers, L. C. McQuat, General Agricultural Agent for C.P.R., Adrien Morin, Chief, Live Stock Branch, Quebec Department of Agriculture, L. W. Pearsall, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Secretary-Manager.

Bacon Advisory Committee-Appointed December 20, 1939 (P.C. 4173), consisting of

William J. Reid, Charlottetown, P.E.I., H. Wilson, Charring Cross, Ontario, J. H. Tapley, Toronto, Ontario, K. N. M. Morrison, Barrie, Ontario, F. H. Downing, St. Boniface, Manitoba, John Burns, Calgary. Alberta, John Harrold, Namao, Alberta, Joseph Bisson, Montreal, Quebec.

Dairy Products Board-Appointed May 22, 1940 (P.C. ), consisting of J. F. Singleton,

Associate Director, Marketing Service, Dairy Products, Dominion Department of Agriculture, (Chairman); Joseph F. Desmarais, Montreal; .John Freeman, Montreal.

A glance at the membership of these provincial production committees will show that producer organizations are fully represented. This will likewise be found true of the national apple advisory committee set up under the agricultural supplies board, and of the advisory committee to the bacon board.

The farmers across Canada have been kept informed of developments through these various committees and organizations, as well as directly through agricultural representatives, newspapers and the radio. Plans are under way to hold another meeting with provincial officials in the near future. At this meeting the problems of disposing of this season's production of agricultural products will be discussed. Great Britain's needs for certain products may be greatly different in the months to come. No one knows how much our crops will yield this year. It is possible

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

that there may be a shortage in a certain line of production where a surplus existed a year earlier. Plans to cope with the many situations which may develop will be discussed at the coming conference. In keeping with the understanding reached at the conference, it was decided that the agricultural supplies board should serve as the central directive agency, giving leads based on the needs of the situation in Britain or Canada. The board suggested bacon-hog programmes for each province last October in the light of feed supplies and other factors.

In November seed conservation and utilization programmes were suggested to each province. These programmes, it may be added, were found acceptable and were put into effect by the provincial committees. In response to a request by the provincial delegates that the board keep them fully informed of its activities, seven monthly progress reports were issued by the board down to April 30, 1940, as well as a quarterly report at December 31, 1939, and a complete summary of activities to March 31, 1940. Beginning with the second monthly progress report, reports received from the provinces were appended so that the board became a clearing house for news, not only as between itself and the provinces but also between the various provinces themselves.

Up to April 30, Nova Scotia and Alberta had each sent in six progress reports, to accompany the reports of the board. Ontario had sent in three; New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and British Columbia had sent in two each, and Prince Edward Island had sent in one. No official progress reports have been received from Quebec and Manitoba although communications of other kinds have been received. The provinces have likewise been kept supplied with copies of orders in council and other documents relating to the work of the board, as well as with copies of press releases when such provided suggestions dealing with production matters. Through correspondence the board and the provincial officials likewise maintain contact.

In support of its production work the board issued forty-five different special pamphlets in its war-time production series, publishing them in large enough quantities to enable them to serve the needs of the provincial departments of agriculture. These pamphlets present in a short, practical form information of particular value in war time. The total printings of these pamphlets ran to 1,147,000 in English and 310.000 in French, or 1,457,000


in all. Five of the pamphlets have already had to be reprinted to meet the demand. Not only have considerable quantities been distributed by the provincial departments of agriculture, experimental farms and agricultural colleges, but as a result of radio publicity and notices in the press copy issued by the dominion department of agriculture, large numbers have gone directly to farmers requesting them.

The general public has been kept fully informed of the war activities of the Department of Agriculture through public addresses, through statements released to the press and agricultural papers and by means of radio. I am not going to take the time to read what has gone to the press itself, although I have a fairly complete summary of that. Much of what went to the press has appeared in the press from time to time. Use has been made of the department's farm broadcasts to keep farmers throughout Canada informed of the various aspects of the war effort, and to give out special news when necessary. As examples, one might mention the special statement issued over the air by the bacon board following the developments in Denmark early in April, the publicity given to the special pamphlets published by the agricultural supplies board as these became ready for distribution, and the three special messages broadcast this spring, to farmers in eastern Canada, suggesting measures which might be taken this year to make themselves more independent of purchased feeds.

Specific requests by the United Kingdom have been met for supplies of bacon, cheese, eggs, fibre flaxseed, and flax fibre and tow. The arrangements between the United Kingdom and Canada for these products either provided for a greater supply than has usually been exported from Canada or about the same supply as usual. Bacon and fibre flaxseed exports are larger than usual, while exports of cheese and eggs will be about the same. Restrictions have been placed by the United Kingdom on the importation of apples, tobacco and dressed poultry. Import licences for honey were withheld for a time. Imports of canned goods were not licensed until late in March, with the result that Canadian supplies were exported in large volumes. Mr. Speaker, I should like to be permitted to place upon Hansard a table showing the movement of Canadian farm produce to the United Kingdom this year as compared with the last two years. The table is as follows:

War Appropriation-Mr. Gardiner

Exports to United Kingdom September to March inclusive

1939-40 1938-39 1937-38Wheat and flour 54,886,146 57,361,894 46,459,977Barley 3,079,771 8,212,950 8,737,3002,046,668 4,154,191 2,131,88557,143 44,298 54,873Bacon and hams 1,613,143 950,141 1,049,180Other pork 3,130 4,623 8,14613,525 74,115 118,013Dressed poultry lb. 789,679 2.614,717 1,361,840903.240 1,129,888 1,336,5801.972 88,800 36,265539,411 459,136 459,4691.178,802 2,490,861 2,039,706lb. 24,375,945 8,978,215 8,820,647lb. 21,927,200 6,031,986 5,559,792Total canned fruits lb. 54,13S,609 18,055,474 18,027,065Total canned vegetables lb. 138,163,689 51,843,680 38,921.417Honey lb. 5,057,319 3,133,437 1,809,868

For the immediate benefit of the house I will read one or two of the most important. In wheat and flour we exported to Great Britain in the months from September to March of this year a total of 54,886,000 bushels.


Karl Kenneth Homuth

National Government


Are those months inclusive?


James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)



Yes. In 1938-39 we

exported 57,360,000 bushels, and in 1937-38, which was a small crop year, we exported

46.459.000 bushels. It will be seen that exports during the months of this year compare very favourably with exports during the same months in the previous two years. Exports of barley are down to less than half, while exports of oats are down to about half what they were last year but are about the same as they were the year before. Exports of rye are about the same. Exports of bacon and ham totalled 1,613,000 hundredweight as against 950,000 hundredweight a year ago, and 1,049,000 hundredweight the year before that. Our exports this year were more than fifty per cent greater than they were during the same period last year.

Exports of eggs totalled 903,000 dozen as against 1,129,000 dozen last year and 1,300,000 dozen the year before. Exports of dressed poultry were down to about one-third of what they were last year, while exports of cheese were considerably higher than they were last year. Exports of apples were down from

2.490.000 barrels to 1,178,000 barrels, while exports of canned apples rose from 8,978,000 pounds to 24,000,000 pounds. I could continue to go through the list, but I have suggested that it be published in full in Hansard for the benefit of hon. members.


Mark Cecil Senn

Conservative (1867-1942)


Would the minister tell us

why those two months only were chosen?


James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)



We have taken the

months from September to March inclusive, the months we have been at war. We have

compared the exports during this period with the exports in the previous years in order to indicate what change has occurred this year as compared with the other years as a result of the fact that we are at war.


Mark Cecil Senn

Conservative (1867-1942)


I understood the minister to

mention two months only, rather than six.


James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)



It is the whole period

of the war from September to March inclusive. The Canadian government is directly concerned in the export of bacon, cheese, fibre flaxseed. Egg exports go through the normal trade channels. Government guidance was necessary in connection with the export of apples, poultry and tobacco in order to ensure that producers in all sections of the country received a fair share of the restricted market.

I should like to give the house the particulars with regard to the bacon agreement. Canadian bacon was requisitioned by the ministry of food in Great Britain from the first week of the war. Settlement was made with the packers' agents until the bacon board took control of shipments the week of January 20, 1940. The agreement provides for weekly shipments of 5,600,000 pounds until the end of October, 1940. A flat price of $20.18 per 112 pounds for grade A bacon, basis Canadian seaboard, is being paid by Great Britain, which is equal to $18.01 per 100 pounds of bacon.

The four members of the bacon board are leading men in the agricultural industry, all having broad administrative experience as well as a practical knowledge of farm operations. The advisory board is composed of men representing the producers and the bacon trade. One duty of the bacon board is to ensure that the supplies required for export will be available.


May 23, 1940