Right Hon. W. L. MACKENZIE KING (Prime Minister) :
Mr. President, Your Excellency, Your Royal Highness, members of the Parliament of Canada, ladies and gentlemen,- To-day will be for all time a memorable day for Canada. I need not remind you, Mr. President, how often I have expressed the desire that you might visit Ottawa during your term of office as President of the United States. We have hoped that on such a visit you would speak to the members of the Senate and the House of Commons, either within or without the walls of our Houses of Parliament. You know, too, how frequently His Excellency the Governor General and Her Royal Highness the Princess Alice have expressed the wish that they might have the honour of a visit from Mrs. Roosevelt and yourself at some time during His Excellency's term of office as the representative in Canada of His Majesty the King.
Perhaps I may be allowed also to mention how greatly, for personal reasons, I have looked forward to the pleasure of welcoming to the seat of government and to my own home one whose friendship, in ever closer association, I have been privileged to enjoy over many years. To-day all these hopes and wishes, so warmly cherished by the people of Canada, by their 72537-344
representatives in parliament, by His Excellency and Her Royal Highness and by myself, are being happily realized.
On behalf of all Canada I extend to you today, Mr. President, the warmest of welcomes to the capital of our country. I thank you for having honoured our capital city by your presence at a time which is without parallel in the history 'of human affairs.
The Canadian people will, I know, wish me to express to you the admiration which they feel for you and for your great career. We recognize in you one who has always had a deep concern for the well-being of his fellow-men. We have long known that your services to the cause of freedom far exceed limits of race and bounds of nationality. We honour you as an undaunted champion of the rights of free men and a mighty leader of the forces of freedom in a world at war. We feel, too, a special affection for a lifelong friend of our country.
This is the first occasion on which a President of the United States has visited Canada's capital. It is particularly pleasing to us that this visit should have its association with your momentous meeting in the ancient
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capital of Canada with the Prime Minister of Great Britain. Over the past two years your meetings with Mr. Churchill have been the signal for great events. The conference at Quebec just concluded will, I am confident, mark a further advance towards final victory.
The City of Quebec is the birthplace of Canada. Beneath its cliffs, in 1608, Champlain founded a settlement and established a seat of government; upon its height is erected a monument commemorating in a single shaft the chivalry of Wolfe and Montcalm in the decisive battle of 1759. It is the city in which, in 1864, the fathers of the Canadian confederation assembled in conference to fashion the Canada that was to be. We were indeed delighted when we learned that Quebec had been selected as the place of meeting between Mr. Churchill and yourself.
We rejoice, Mr. President, that your visit to Ottawa comes at a moment when for the first time in our long history as close neighbours, soldiers of Canada and the United States have fought side by side. Combined British, United States and Canadian forces have just completed the occupation of Sicily as a first step in the liberation of Europe. Combined United States and Canadian forces have just occupied the last Japanese outpost in the western hemisphere.
The tapidity with which the American people gathered their strength, and the momentum and magnitude of their war effort, have filled the world with amazement. All Canada joins in admiration for the efficiency and heroism of the men of the fighting forces of the United States. In the southwest Pacific, in the Aleutians, in North Africa, in Sicily, in the skies over every battle-front and on all the oceans of the world, their deeds are recording a glorious chapter in the history of freedom.
In the combined efforts of the military forces and the peoples of the United States and the British empire, joined with those of the heroic peoples of Russia and China and of the other united nations, lies the certainty of complete victory over the forces of tyranny which have sought the domination of the world.
Canada counts it a high privilege to have the opportunity of drawing into relations of closer friendship, understanding, and good will, the United States and the nations of the British commonwealth. We are firmly convinced that in the continued close association of the British commonwealth of nations and the United States of America lies the surest
(Mr. Mackenzie King.]
guarantee of international peace, and of the furtherance of the well-being of mankind throughout the world.
(Translation) Mr. President, once more, and using this time the other official language of our country, I wish to extend to you the most cordial welcome on behalf of all Canada.
Mr. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (President of the United States): Your Excellency, Your Royal Highness, Mr. Prime Minister, and members of the Parliament, and all my good friends and neighbours of the Dominion of Canada,-It was exactly five years ago last Wednesday that I came to Canada to receive the high honour of a degree at Queen's university. On that occasion-one year before the invasion of Poland, three years before Pearl Harbor-I said:
We in the Americas are no longer a faraway continent, to which the eddies of controversies beyond the seas could bring no interest or no harm. Instead, we in the Americas have become a consideration to every propaganda office and to every general staff beyond the seas. The vast amount of our resources, the vigour of our commerce, and the strength of our men have made us vital factors in world peace whether we choose it or not.
We did not choose this war-and that "we" includes each and every one of the united nations. War was violently forced upon us by criminal aggressors who measure their standards of morality by the extent of the death and the destruction that they can inflict upon their neighbours.
In this war, Canadians and Americans have fought shoulder to shoulder-as our men and our women and our children have worked together and played together in happier times of peace.
To-day, in devout gratitude, we are celebrating a brilliant victory won by British, Canadian and American fighting men in Sicily.
To-day, we rejoice also in another event for which we need not apologize. A year ago Japan occupied several of the Aleutian islands on our side of the ocean and made a great "to-do" about the invasion of the continent of North America. I regret to say that some Americans and some Canadians wished our governments to withdraw from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean campaigns and divert all our vast strength to the removal of the Japs from a few rocky specks in the north Pacific.
To-day, our wiser councils have maintained our efforts in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and the China seas and the southwest Pacific with ever-growing contributions;
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and in the northwest Pacific a relatively small campaign has been assisted by the Japs themselves in the elimination of the last Jap from Attu and Kiska. We have been told that Japs never surrender; their headlong retreat satisfies us just as well.
Great councils are being held here on the free and honoured soil of Canada-councils which look to the future conduct of this war and to the years of building a new progress [DOT] for mankind. To these councils Canadians and Americans alike again welcome that wise and good and gallant gentleman, the Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Mr. King, my old friend, may I through you thank the people of Canada for their hospitality to all of us. Your course and mine have run so closely and affectionately during these many long years that this meeting adds another link to that chain. I have always felt at home in Canada, and you, I think, have always felt at home in the United States.
During the past few days in Quebec, the combined staffs have been sitting around a table-which is a good custom-talking things over, discussing ways and means, in the manner of friends, in the manner of partners, and may I even say, in the manner of members of the same family.
We have talked constructively of our common purposes in this war-of our determination to achieve victory in the shortest possible time-of our essential cooperation with our great and brave fighting allies. And we have arrived, harmoniously, at certain definite conclusions. Of course, I am not at liberty to disclose just what these conclusions are. But, in due time, we shall communicate the secret information of the Quebec conference to Germany, Italy and Japan. We shall communicate this information to our enemies in the only language their twisted minds seem capable of understanding.
Sometimes I wish that that great master of intuition, the nazi leader, could have been present in spirit at the Quebec conference- I am thoroughly glad he was not there in person. If he and his generals had known our plans they would have realized that discretion is still the better part of valour and that surrender would pay them better now than later.
The evil characteristic that makes a nazi a nazi is his utter inability to understand and therefore to respect the qualities or the rights of his fellow-men. His only method of dealing with his neighbour is first to delude him with lies, then to attack him treacherously, then beat him down and step on him, and
then either kill him or enslave him. And the same thing is true of the fanatical militarists of Japan.
Because their own instincts and impulses are essentially inhuman, our enemies simply cannot comprehend how it is that decent, sensible individual human beings manage to get along together and live together as neighbours. That is why our enemies are doing their desperate best to misrepresent the purposes and the results of this Quebec conference. They still seek to divide and conquer allies who refuse to be divided just as cheerfully as they refuse to be conquered.
We spend our energies and our resources and the very lives of our sons and daughters because a band of gangsters in the community of nations declines to recognize the fundamentals of decent, human conduct.
We have been forced to call out what we in the United States would call the sheriff's posse to break up the gang in order that gangsterism may be eliminated in the community of nations.
We are making sure-absolutely, irrevocably sure-that this time the lesson is driven home to them once and for all. Yes, we are going to be rid of outlaws this time.
Every one of the united nations believes that only a real and lasting peace can justify the sacrifices we are making, and our unanimity gives us confidence in seeking that goal.
It is no secret that at Quebec there was much talk of the post-war world. That discussion was doubtless duplicated simultaneously in dozens of nations and hundreds of cities and among millions of people.
There is a longing in the air. It is not a longing to go back to what they call "the good old days." I have distinct reservations as to how good "the good old days" were. I would rather believe that we can achieve new and better days.
Absolute victory in this war will give greater opportunities for the world because the winning of the war in itself is proving, certainly proving to all of us here, that concerted action can accomplish things. Surely we can make strides toward a greater freedom from want than the world has yet enjoyed. Surely by unanimous action in driving out the outlaws and keeping them under heel for ever, we can attain a freedom from fear of violence.
I am everlastingly angry only at those who assert vociferously that the Four Freedoms and the Atlantic charter are nonsense because they are unattainable. If they had
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lived a century and a half ago they would have sneered and said that the Declaration of Independence was utter piffle. If they had lived nearly a thousand years ago they would have laughed uproariously at the ideals of Magna Charta. And if they had lived several thousand years ago they would have derided Moses when he came from the mountain with the Ten Commandments.
We concede that these great teachings are not perfectly lived up to to-day, and we concede that the good old world cannot arrive at utopia overnight. But I would rather be a builder than a wrecker, hoping always that the structure of life is growing-not dying.
May the destroyers who still persist in our midst decrease. They, like some of our enemies, have a long road to travel before they accept the ethics of humanity.
Some day, in the distant future perhaps- but some day with certainty-all of them will remember with the Master-"Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."
(Translation) Mr. Prime Minister, my visit to the old city of Quebec has recalled vividly to my mind that Canada is a nation founded on a union of two great races. The harmony of their equal partnership is an example to all mankind-an example everywhere in the world.