January 26, 1944

GOVERNOR GENERAL'S SPEECH


The Deputy of His Excellency the Governor General was pleased to close the fourth session of the nineteenth parliament of the Dominion of Canada with the following speech: Honourable Members of the Senate: Members of the House of Commons: When the present session opened a year ago, the initiative taken by the united nations gave promise of impressive victories. During the year, that promise has been fulfilled. The axis forces in North Africa have been destroyed. The European mainland has been invaded. Italy has surrendered unconditionally. On the long Russian front the armies of the Soviet Union have relentlessly driven back the nazi invaders. The Japanese advance in the southwest Pacific has been definitely halted. The invasion threats to Australia and New Zealand have been removed. On the mainland of Asia, the Chinese armies and people have continued to hold back the Japanese tide. The destructive enemy submarine campaign in the north Atlantic has been brought under control. On both sides of the globe the united nations have maintained supremacy at sea, and gained ascendancy in the air. Governor General's Speech



To-day, in Italy, German forces, despite stubborn resistance, are being compelled to yield ground. In Russia, great German armies face unparalleled destruction, In southeastern Europe, there is growing unrest among Germany's satellite states. In the occupied countries, the people await the signal for open resistance. An ever-increasing aerial bombardment is destroying the war potential of Germany. It is bringing the war home to the German people. In the campaign against the U-boats, Canada's navy has had a prominent part. It has helped to maintain the bridge of ships across the Atlantic on which offensive action in Europe depends. During the year, all allied naval forces in the northwest Atlantic -were placed under a Canadian commander-in-chief. Units of the Canadian army were among the first to land in Sicily, and again on the mainland of Italy. In hard battles won and hundreds of miles of difficult ground taken, our soldiers have had their full share in the accomplishments of this important campaign. They have made a record unexcelled by fighting men. On the opposite side of the world, Canadian forces joined with those of the United States in the occupation of Kiska in the Aleutians. In the attacks upon the U-boats, in the aerial assaults against Germany and occupied Europe, and over battlefronts around the globe, increasing numbers of Canadian airmen continued to take a telling part. During the autumn, the Minister of National Defence visited Canada's overseas forces in Britain and in Italy. The transport of mail to the forces overseas has been greatly improved by the establishment of air mail services. Provision of aid to our allies continued to be a major factor in Canada's war effort. War supplies are being sent to Russia, to China, to French forces in Africa, as well as to the United Kingdom and other nations of the commonwealth. They are supplied under the mutual aid legislation enacted during the present session, and are allocated by the mutual aid board in accordance with strategic need. A considerable portion of Canada's mutual aid has been transported across the seas in Canadian built ships, manned by Canadian crews. For more than a year, Canada has been sending wheat to Greece every month to aid in relieving the starving population. To assist in relieving famine conditions in Bengal, the government has also taken steps to ship Canadian wheat to India. During the year, production reached the highest level in Canada's history. About half of the total has been devoted to war purposes. Farmers and fishermen have splendidly maintained the production of foodstuffs. No less devoted service has been given by those engaged in lumbering, mining, transportation and all branches of manufacture and distribution. Despite inevitable shortages, essential manpower needs of the armed forces, of industry, and of agriculture have been filled by voluntary methods and by national selective service. This has been facilitated by the patriotism and the skill of the vast majority of workers, both men and women, and by the cooperation of the provinces, local authorities and voluntary organizations. When parliament adjourned in July, a measure had been enacted to provide for the establishment of a national council to promote physical fitness. Unemployment insurance had been extended to additional groups of workers, and provision had been made for an increase in the amount of old age pensions. Provision was also made for the collection of income taxes on a current basis. In- the session just concluded, careful study was given by select committees of both houses, to the problem of full employment after the war, and, in particular, to the establishment in useful and remunerative employment of the men and women of our armed forces and in war industries. Careful study was similarly given by select committees on social security to the most practicable measures of social insurance, and the steps which would be required to ensure their inclusion in a national plan which itself would include the establishment of a nation-wide system of health insurance. My ministers have given close attention to the recommendations of the select committees and to other investigations in the fields of post-war reconstruction and social security. During the course of the year, the price ceiling has been splendidly maintained. My ministers have reaffirmed their determination to do all in their power to prevent inflation and to safeguard a basic standard of living. To this end the wartime wages control order has been simplified and strengthened. It will continue to be administered by the national war labour board. Consultation is proceeding with the several provinces regarding the enactment of a comprehensive code of labour relations which will be administered by a wartime labour relations board, and which will include the principle of compulsory collective bargaining. Recognition of Canada's growing stature in international affairs has found expression in the expansion of our diplomatic and consular services, and in the agreements to raise Canada's missions to the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Brazil and Belgium, as well as the legations of these countries in Canada, to the status of embassies. Direct relations have been established with the French committee of national liberation. A Canadian representative with the personal rank of ambassador now represents Canada at Algiers. The year has also witnessed increased representation of Canada at international conferences and on international boards concerned with -wartime and post-war problems. In the month of August, the government was host to the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Great Britain and their advisers at a conference at Quebec. The Quebec conference, like the earlier conference at Washington and the later conferences at Cairo and Teheran, was one of the milestones in the strategic planning of the war. Following the conference at Quebec, Ottawa was honoured by a visit of the President. It was the first occasion on which a President of the United States has visited the Capital of Canada. Members of the House of Commons: I thank you for the financial appropriations you have made for the prosecution of the war. Their magnitude is again without precedent. Address oj President Roosevelt I am pleased that you made special provision for the appointment of parliamentary assistants to ministers of the crown. I am glad that the hopes entertained of this development in the organization of parliament have been so fully realized. Honourable Members of the Senate: Members of the House of Commons: You will have been deeply gratified that despite the increased level of taxation, the fourth and fifth victory loans met with an unprecedented public response. Clearer evidence could not have been given of the determination of the Canadian people to do their utmost in the winning of the war. In bringing the present session to a close, I join -with you in humble thanks to God for His merciful providence and for the increasing hope vouchsafed to the united1 nations throughout this year of war. This concluded the fourth session of the nineteenth parliament.


ADDRESS


Mr. FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT President oj the United States TO


MEMBERS OF THE SENATE AND OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC


Parliament Hill, Ottawa, August 25, 1943 (The President was introduced by the Prime Minister, Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie King, and thanked by the Speaker oj the Senate, Hon. Thomas Vien, and the Speaker oj the House oj Commons, Hon. James Allison Glen)


LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Right Hon. W. L. MACKENZIE KING (Prime Minister) :

Mr. President, Your Excellency, Your Royal Highness, members of the Parliament of Canada, ladies and gentlemen,- To-day will be for all time a memorable day for Canada. I need not remind you, Mr. President, how often I have expressed the desire that you might visit Ottawa during your term of office as President of the United States. We have hoped that on such a visit you would speak to the members of the Senate and the House of Commons, either within or without the walls of our Houses of Parliament. You know, too, how frequently His Excellency the Governor General and Her Royal Highness the Princess Alice have expressed the wish that they might have the honour of a visit from Mrs. Roosevelt and yourself at some time during His Excellency's term of office as the representative in Canada of His Majesty the King.

Perhaps I may be allowed also to mention how greatly, for personal reasons, I have looked forward to the pleasure of welcoming to the seat of government and to my own home one whose friendship, in ever closer association, I have been privileged to enjoy over many years. To-day all these hopes and wishes, so warmly cherished by the people of Canada, by their 72537-344

representatives in parliament, by His Excellency and Her Royal Highness and by myself, are being happily realized.

On behalf of all Canada I extend to you today, Mr. President, the warmest of welcomes to the capital of our country. I thank you for having honoured our capital city by your presence at a time which is without parallel in the history 'of human affairs.

The Canadian people will, I know, wish me to express to you the admiration which they feel for you and for your great career. We recognize in you one who has always had a deep concern for the well-being of his fellow-men. We have long known that your services to the cause of freedom far exceed limits of race and bounds of nationality. We honour you as an undaunted champion of the rights of free men and a mighty leader of the forces of freedom in a world at war. We feel, too, a special affection for a lifelong friend of our country.

This is the first occasion on which a President of the United States has visited Canada's capital. It is particularly pleasing to us that this visit should have its association with your momentous meeting in the ancient

Address of President Roosevelt

capital of Canada with the Prime Minister of Great Britain. Over the past two years your meetings with Mr. Churchill have been the signal for great events. The conference at Quebec just concluded will, I am confident, mark a further advance towards final victory.

The City of Quebec is the birthplace of Canada. Beneath its cliffs, in 1608, Champlain founded a settlement and established a seat of government; upon its height is erected a monument commemorating in a single shaft the chivalry of Wolfe and Montcalm in the decisive battle of 1759. It is the city in which, in 1864, the fathers of the Canadian confederation assembled in conference to fashion the Canada that was to be. We were indeed delighted when we learned that Quebec had been selected as the place of meeting between Mr. Churchill and yourself.

We rejoice, Mr. President, that your visit to Ottawa comes at a moment when for the first time in our long history as close neighbours, soldiers of Canada and the United States have fought side by side. Combined British, United States and Canadian forces have just completed the occupation of Sicily as a first step in the liberation of Europe. Combined United States and Canadian forces have just occupied the last Japanese outpost in the western hemisphere.

The tapidity with which the American people gathered their strength, and the momentum and magnitude of their war effort, have filled the world with amazement. All Canada joins in admiration for the efficiency and heroism of the men of the fighting forces of the United States. In the southwest Pacific, in the Aleutians, in North Africa, in Sicily, in the skies over every battle-front and on all the oceans of the world, their deeds are recording a glorious chapter in the history of freedom.

In the combined efforts of the military forces and the peoples of the United States and the British empire, joined with those of the heroic peoples of Russia and China and of the other united nations, lies the certainty of complete victory over the forces of tyranny which have sought the domination of the world.

Canada counts it a high privilege to have the opportunity of drawing into relations of closer friendship, understanding, and good will, the United States and the nations of the British commonwealth. We are firmly convinced that in the continued close association of the British commonwealth of nations and the United States of America lies the surest

(Mr. Mackenzie King.]

guarantee of international peace, and of the furtherance of the well-being of mankind throughout the world.

(Translation) Mr. President, once more, and using this time the other official language of our country, I wish to extend to you the most cordial welcome on behalf of all Canada.

Mr. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (President of the United States): Your Excellency, Your Royal Highness, Mr. Prime Minister, and members of the Parliament, and all my good friends and neighbours of the Dominion of Canada,-It was exactly five years ago last Wednesday that I came to Canada to receive the high honour of a degree at Queen's university. On that occasion-one year before the invasion of Poland, three years before Pearl Harbor-I said:

We in the Americas are no longer a faraway continent, to which the eddies of controversies beyond the seas could bring no interest or no harm. Instead, we in the Americas have become a consideration to every propaganda office and to every general staff beyond the seas. The vast amount of our resources, the vigour of our commerce, and the strength of our men have made us vital factors in world peace whether we choose it or not.

We did not choose this war-and that "we" includes each and every one of the united nations. War was violently forced upon us by criminal aggressors who measure their standards of morality by the extent of the death and the destruction that they can inflict upon their neighbours.

In this war, Canadians and Americans have fought shoulder to shoulder-as our men and our women and our children have worked together and played together in happier times of peace.

To-day, in devout gratitude, we are celebrating a brilliant victory won by British, Canadian and American fighting men in Sicily.

To-day, we rejoice also in another event for which we need not apologize. A year ago Japan occupied several of the Aleutian islands on our side of the ocean and made a great "to-do" about the invasion of the continent of North America. I regret to say that some Americans and some Canadians wished our governments to withdraw from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean campaigns and divert all our vast strength to the removal of the Japs from a few rocky specks in the north Pacific.

To-day, our wiser councils have maintained our efforts in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and the China seas and the southwest Pacific with ever-growing contributions;

Address of President Roosevelt

and in the northwest Pacific a relatively small campaign has been assisted by the Japs themselves in the elimination of the last Jap from Attu and Kiska. We have been told that Japs never surrender; their headlong retreat satisfies us just as well.

Great councils are being held here on the free and honoured soil of Canada-councils which look to the future conduct of this war and to the years of building a new progress [DOT] for mankind. To these councils Canadians and Americans alike again welcome that wise and good and gallant gentleman, the Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Mr. King, my old friend, may I through you thank the people of Canada for their hospitality to all of us. Your course and mine have run so closely and affectionately during these many long years that this meeting adds another link to that chain. I have always felt at home in Canada, and you, I think, have always felt at home in the United States.

During the past few days in Quebec, the combined staffs have been sitting around a table-which is a good custom-talking things over, discussing ways and means, in the manner of friends, in the manner of partners, and may I even say, in the manner of members of the same family.

We have talked constructively of our common purposes in this war-of our determination to achieve victory in the shortest possible time-of our essential cooperation with our great and brave fighting allies. And we have arrived, harmoniously, at certain definite conclusions. Of course, I am not at liberty to disclose just what these conclusions are. But, in due time, we shall communicate the secret information of the Quebec conference to Germany, Italy and Japan. We shall communicate this information to our enemies in the only language their twisted minds seem capable of understanding.

Sometimes I wish that that great master of intuition, the nazi leader, could have been present in spirit at the Quebec conference- I am thoroughly glad he was not there in person. If he and his generals had known our plans they would have realized that discretion is still the better part of valour and that surrender would pay them better now than later.

The evil characteristic that makes a nazi a nazi is his utter inability to understand and therefore to respect the qualities or the rights of his fellow-men. His only method of dealing with his neighbour is first to delude him with lies, then to attack him treacherously, then beat him down and step on him, and

then either kill him or enslave him. And the same thing is true of the fanatical militarists of Japan.

Because their own instincts and impulses are essentially inhuman, our enemies simply cannot comprehend how it is that decent, sensible individual human beings manage to get along together and live together as neighbours. That is why our enemies are doing their desperate best to misrepresent the purposes and the results of this Quebec conference. They still seek to divide and conquer allies who refuse to be divided just as cheerfully as they refuse to be conquered.

We spend our energies and our resources and the very lives of our sons and daughters because a band of gangsters in the community of nations declines to recognize the fundamentals of decent, human conduct.

We have been forced to call out what we in the United States would call the sheriff's posse to break up the gang in order that gangsterism may be eliminated in the community of nations.

We are making sure-absolutely, irrevocably sure-that this time the lesson is driven home to them once and for all. Yes, we are going to be rid of outlaws this time.

Every one of the united nations believes that only a real and lasting peace can justify the sacrifices we are making, and our unanimity gives us confidence in seeking that goal.

It is no secret that at Quebec there was much talk of the post-war world. That discussion was doubtless duplicated simultaneously in dozens of nations and hundreds of cities and among millions of people.

There is a longing in the air. It is not a longing to go back to what they call "the good old days." I have distinct reservations as to how good "the good old days" were. I would rather believe that we can achieve new and better days.

Absolute victory in this war will give greater opportunities for the world because the winning of the war in itself is proving, certainly proving to all of us here, that concerted action can accomplish things. Surely we can make strides toward a greater freedom from want than the world has yet enjoyed. Surely by unanimous action in driving out the outlaws and keeping them under heel for ever, we can attain a freedom from fear of violence.

I am everlastingly angry only at those who assert vociferously that the Four Freedoms and the Atlantic charter are nonsense because they are unattainable. If they had

Address of President Roosevelt

lived a century and a half ago they would have sneered and said that the Declaration of Independence was utter piffle. If they had lived nearly a thousand years ago they would have laughed uproariously at the ideals of Magna Charta. And if they had lived several thousand years ago they would have derided Moses when he came from the mountain with the Ten Commandments.

We concede that these great teachings are not perfectly lived up to to-day, and we concede that the good old world cannot arrive at utopia overnight. But I would rather be a builder than a wrecker, hoping always that the structure of life is growing-not dying.

May the destroyers who still persist in our midst decrease. They, like some of our enemies, have a long road to travel before they accept the ethics of humanity.

Some day, in the distant future perhaps- but some day with certainty-all of them will remember with the Master-"Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."

(Translation) Mr. Prime Minister, my visit to the old city of Quebec has recalled vividly to my mind that Canada is a nation founded on a union of two great races. The harmony of their equal partnership is an example to all mankind-an example everywhere in the world.

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LIB

Thomas Vien (Speaker of the Senate)

Liberal

Hon. THOMAS VIEN (Speaker of the Senate):

(Translation) Mr. President, I have the signal honour and pleasure of tendering you in my mother tongue, one of the two official languages of this country, the warmest thanks of the Senate, of the House of Commons and of the people of Canada for having graciously consented to visit our capital at the conclusion of the henceforth memorable Quebec conference.

The sojourn among us of a President of the United States would suffice at any time to fill us with pride and enthusiasm. Yet we salute in you, Mr. President, more than the highest official of our sister nation and very good neighbour. We hail and acclaim in you a worthy successor of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Wilson, to mention but a few of the great men who symbolize the glory of jrour country.

Faithful exponent of the spirit that moved the founders of the Republic, you see in the Declaration of Independence a guarantee of freedom not only for your people, but for all the peoples of the earth. Liberal, in the widest sense of the term, you are the friend of man, in whom you behold the image and likeness of our Divine Maker. Having exhausted the resources of a wise and patient diplomacy, you unhesitatingly took up arms to free him from the yoke of oppressors who brutally denied him the exercise of his inalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Were you not expressing your own philosophy of life when you so highly praised on a former occasion these words of Thomas Jefferson: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man"?

The British Empire, Canada and the civilized world owe you an immense debt of gratitude, Mr. President, for having come to their assistance on the morrow of Dunkirk, at an hour when the black clouds of defeat gathered threateningly on the horizon. Even before your entry into the conflict, you found the means of supplying Britain with ships, arms, munitions and the incalculable advantages of "lend-lease."

We Canadians are proud of the fact that we descend from the two greatest races in the world. Our hearts and yours, I am sure, shared the overwhelming grief of France, following the defeat of that unhappy country. We shall never forget that, for the second time in the life of this generation, your country has generously gone to the assistance of a France in mortal danger repeating Pershing's undying words: "La Fayette, we are here!"

When, with the proper perspective that only time can bring, the history of this era shall be written, you will stand in the forefront of that brilliant group of leaders-with Churchill, Mackenzie King, Stalin and Chiang Kai-shek-who have so nobly served humanity.

May I be allowed, Mr. President, to express the deep satisfaction I feel in reiterating to you the heart-felt thanks of the Canadian Parliament and people for having honoured us with your presence here to-day and having cheered us with your very comforting remarks. We pray God that He may grant you His favours in abundance, that He may bless you and the great Republic whose destinies you guide, until such time as we may all glorify Him together in final victory on the threshold of a lasting peace.

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LIB-PRO

James Allison Glen (Speaker of the House of Commons)

Liberal Progressive

Hon. JAMES ALLISON GLEN (Speaker of the House of Commons):

Mr. President, to-day Canada has been afforded the unique privilege of welcoming to our own capital the first President of the United States of America while still in office. This gathering is the culmination of a long-standing invitation given by the Right Hon. Mackenzie King to one who has been an intimate friend for more years than

Address oj President Roosevelt

either of them would care to say. It is well, sir, that you should tax the hospitality of your friends occasionally, and I can state confidently that everyone, young and old, in this vast assembly before you, together with that great unseen listening audience throughout the whole of Canada, look upon you with that possessive regard which is bestowed when a much-loved guest honours our home. I hope I shall not be misunderstood when I say that many Canadians affectionately call you "our President."

Canada will never forget the dark and dismal years of 1940 and 1941, nor will it ever forget that unparalleled act when you, as President of your great country, gave that generous and sorely needed lend-lease help which aided Great Britain to withstand and repel a conquering and then a seemingly invincible foe. National as well as human memories, with passing years and other conditions, sometimes fade and become remote, but it would be an indelible blot on our escutcheon if at any future time Canada or the democracies forgot the noble help your country afforded us.

It is therefore with real pleasure we behold in our capital your unmistakable figure and listen to that bold and confident voice so familiar to our ears. And what makes this day so memorable to us is the knowledge that it is to Canada particularly you speak. We have shared with the world in those intimate so-called fireside chats which you have addressed to your own people but which really

encompassed the world and belong to the ages. Those fireside chats, clothed in language simple, expressive and enduring, the product of a gifted mind and balanced judgment, made their striking appeal because they are based on the eternal verities without which, as we believe, nothing is. To-day, sir, your speech is an outstanding example of those utterances which have endeared you to our people and caused dismaying fear to our foes.

The road still may be long and dreary and the end not yet in sight, but the issue is no longer in doubt and upon you, sir, the tremendous responsibilities of victory will be part of your destiny. You will require the assistance of all who, like you, believe that good is the final goal of ill. We are confident that in Canada you will find that cooperation in peace which we have shared in war. All we desire is the right to exercise the four freedoms upon which an enduring democracy must be based. If I may say so, your own phrase- now a household word-"the good neighbour," definitely embodies these principles. We invoke the blessing of Almighty God upon you. May He strengthen and sustain you until victory is achieved and peace and happiness restored to this war-torn world.

Mr. President, in the name of and for Canada I thank you most cordially and sincerely for your presence with us to-day, and for your noble address.

Topic:   MEMBERS OF THE SENATE AND OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC
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END OF VOLUME V.

January 26, 1944