May 22, 1901 (9th Parliament, 1st Session)


Charles Edwin Kaulbach

Conservative (1867-1942)


cents a barrel, on bran, Indian corn and rice 12* per cent ad valorem, on salt 20 cents a ton, on coal oil 6 cents a gallon. Then, Newfoundland is to admit free of duty, when coming from the United States, all agricultural implements and machinery imported by societies for the promotion of agriculture, and crushing mills for mining purposes, raw cotton, corn for brooms, gas engines, ploughs and harrows, reaping, raking and ploughing machines, printing presses and printing types.
With the exception of some few other articles named, such as cotton and broom corn, Canada is a competitor of the United States in the Newfoundland market, and still we are told by Mr. Bond, as an offset to our objection, that he is ' giving away no fishing concessions, and that there is nothing in the treaty that in any way discriminates against Canada.' It 5s conceded that nothing could be devised that would be more destructive to the trade and industry of Canada than a treaty of this nature, for by it one of the greatest industries and enterprises Canada is engaged in would be set at rest, and practically destroyed, that of fishing, and as a consequence our valuable fishing fleet, the pride of the maritime provinces, would cease to exist, shipyards would be closed up. Fishermen who hitherto enjoyed a calling of this sort, and obtained but a very moderate return for their toil, would have to surrender it for some other employment, and perhaps practically driven from our shores ; the merchant deprived of the fisherman's custom, the tradesman deprived of his employment, the farmer of a market for his farm products, in fact all would suffer, and in many cases, as a last alternative, would have to seek a home in the United States. The great complaint now is the want of a market for our fish since the United States lias ceded Porto Kieo and planted the Stars and Stripes on its soil-an island that gave us the principal market for our fish, but now wholly monopolized by the United States, a matter that Canada and Newfoundland can control, provided we give the United States no fishing privileges on our shores for the procuring of bait.
Nova Scotians found a difficulty this spring in securing full crews to man their vessels to prosecute the fisheries, owing to the want of a lucrative market for the fish, and the American fishing skippers feeling the United States are having the control of the fish market, are offering, and did offer this present spring, greater inducements to our fishermen than we could give them, and as a consequence we lost many of them, and many vessels had to sail from our ports with only part crews. But to give the United States by this proposed treaty greater concessions and privileges than she has had in the past would not only destroy the industry of fishing in the maritime pro-

vinces, but give the United States the monopoly of the fish trade in the West India islands, deprive us of the catch of fish in the summer months, and the carriage of them in our vessels in the winter season.
I fear itoo little attention is given by hon. gentlemen opposite to this all-important fishing industry whereby to guard, foster and protect our rights and interests as they should be cared for, for the benefit of Canadian fishermen and fish traders doing business with the West Indies in the shipments of fish and fish products, as well as in lumber and merchandise. My reason for making this statement is almost proverbial. It is in the memory of this House that a special appeal was made by me to the government several years ago when difficulties were presenting themselves and war was threatened between Spain and the United States, I having in view the profitable trade Nova Scotia was having at that time with Porto Rico, and a desire at the same time to retain it, that our Canadian government should communicate with the Imperial government suggesting that the United States confine her operations strictly to Cuba by way of giving that island, as she (the United States) had promised, her independence, but not to interfere with Porto Rico, as the people of that island were law-abiding and peaceable, unless Porto Rico desired separation from Spain, and then only on condition that Great Britain and her colonies would have a tariff that would offer no friction, but that one uniform trade basis as respects the trade of that island would be enjoyed by Great Britain and her colonies and the United States alike. Had this arrangement been accomplished, it would have tended greatly to our advantage as Canadians, but I doubt if any correspondence by way of an appeal in this connection was ever had. and as a consequence that island was ceded to the United States, and we have a tariff at present formulated by the United States so hostile as to be almost prohibitory.
Now, Canada and Newfoundland should be a unit on this question, and so plan, as to get even with the United States on this deal. I suggest that the United States be given no privileges in Canadian, nor in Newfoundland waters, and that the two sister colonies stand together in this respect and give no bait, but utilize it ourselves for the catch of fish, and thus become masters of our own situation, and be in a position to dictate terms, as it is very well known that if the American fishermen cannot get bait they cannot catch the fish, and we will then be in a position to supply not only the United States market with fish, but the Porto Rico market as well, and obtain any price we choose to ask, irrespective of any tariff wall they wish to set up against us.
But if we are so blind to our own interests as to allow the United States to build
vessels, man them with our own men, obtain bait from us by purchase or otherwise in British waters, catch the fish that we should catch ourselves, and supply their own market, as well as come into competition with us in the West Indies and other markets abroad, we might as well surrender all, and give up our entire fishing industry, as we would be starved out. I hope the government will grasp the force of my argument, and bitterly oppose so unjust an attempt to interfere with our fishing industry and destroy our trade generally, out of which Newfoundland should be able to see she is .receiving no material benefit herself-but striking a blow at Canada which is unnatural, to say the least of it.
Why this hostile movement on the part of Mr. Bond, as the premier of Newfoundland, I cannot understand, when Canada has ever been so favourably disposed towards her, proofs of which we have shown in a variety of instances, notably our establishing the ' Marcone ' system of telegraphy at Chateau, on- Castle Bay, at the north-east entrance to the Straits of Belle Isle. One at present at Bonne Bay to be carried to Quirpon. Lights are kept up by us-the Canadian government-on Labrador shores, at Forteau, and another at Greenly Island, with fog-horns at eacli of these stations. On the south side of the Straits of Belle Isle the Canadian government maintains four lights, viz. : Cape Bauld, Cape Norman, Flower Ledge, and Point Rich. Flower Ledge light was only recently constructed. Cape Ray, and Cape Race lights, the latter built by the English government, were recently transferred to the care of the Canadian government-and all kept up by Canada.
We in Canadian ports permit Newfoundland shipping to enter and clear upon the payment of the small entry fee of 25 cents, without even the payment of a light due, whilst Canadian shipping entering, the port of St. John, Newfoundland, are compelled to pay port charges the same as if they were foreigners. A payment is exacted even on our salt and barrels, although not taken from the ship nor landed, but used in the curing and packing of fish, and in some cases taken away from the port without being used at all. or landed as an article of merchandise, which, to my mind, appears unreasonable, and contrary to all precedent. I wish the hon. Minister of Marine and Fisheries would take note of this matter, that is, the unjust exaction of a duty on salt and barrels from our fishermen when not even landed from the ship, and ask the Newfoundland government to correct it.
Canada ranks seventh among the maritime nations of the world as regards registered tonnage of vessels, even ahead of Russia, but how long we can retain that credit will .mainly depend upon the action the Canadian government will take in this proposed appeal to the Imperial government to

have so disastrous a project crushed as this proposed Bond-Blaine treaty, so disastrous to Canada and Canadian shipping, that it' allowed will destroy our trade and shipping completely. I would draw the attention of the hon. Minister of Finance to the shipbuilding industry in Queen's, where there are seven new vessels now under construction. What would be the effect on that industry if this treaty *were allowed ? It would be shut out completely, and the ship-building of Lunenberg destroyed as well.
As to clauses 4 and 5 of the proposed treaty relating to manufacturers' and farmers' interests, I leave them to other members of this House to show the injury it is to them, to be so unfriendly discriminated against by Newfoundland in the interest of the United States. As to the vast fishing field possessed by Canada and Newfoundland, I say let us be sisters in reality and enjoy our own harvest, and not allow our neighbours to the south of us to crop it for us, and thus we will have a rich reward and control the market, which I hope Newfoundland will see.
Better still, let her come into the greal confederacy of continental British North America and become one grand whole, and thus a united and prosperous people.
In conclusion, and before resuming my seat, I repeat that I hope the government will take the most active, prompt and determined measures through the Imperial government to defeat so unjust and unreasonable a treaty as proposed, so suicidal to the best interests of Canada.

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