Well, we have the French very near. They are a welcome race, no matter where we find them. Now, I submit that in order to have national harmony, the people must hold in common such great fundamentals of nationhood as, national ideals and aims, the Christian religion, race tradition-the colour and habits of the race, and, perhaps, most important of all from the standpoint of immigration, the practice of intermarriage. These are powerful sociological forces which make possible and bring about national harmony.
We read in Wells' "Outline of History" that most of these races trace their origin back to twelve thousand centuries ago, and they have been gradually differentiating until to-day we have the various races which now people the world. During the five thousand years of their recorded history we know that Japan and China have maintained their national characteristics, and although they have lived side by side they have not intermarried, nor has it been possible for them to assimilate with each other. If that is so with those two nations, how much more so is it as between Asiatic peoples on the one hand and those of Anglo-Saxon stock on the other? We need only look at the past, and, taking our lessons from history, adopt a sound and sane policy for the future, although it may be intertwined with certain international difficulties at the outset.
The Eurasian, produced by the union between the white and brown races, has no social standing on either side of the Pacific. We all respect Japan as a nation and the splendid qualities of her people, likewise we must respect the good qualities of the Chinese; but it is the coming into this country of a particular section of those peoples, of the Mongolians and the lower educated classes, which has produced the educational and other problems that we are faced with to-day.
In order to indicate the difficulties with which the West is confronted, and with which the whole of Canada will sooner or later be confronted if this question is not dealt with promptly and satisfactorily, I have decided to refer for a few minutes to the ramifications of the drug traffic throughout Canada as disclosed by investigations conducted by committees in various parts of the country. The lowest dives, harbouring the lowest moral depravity, are found in the Chinese quarters of our cities. The drug traffic is organized like any large business. At the head of it are trained and capable men, and they have their
financiers, their importers, their wholesalers, their retailers, and even their street peddlers. Drugs in large quantities come to this country from China and Japan by our Pacific liners. In some cases the drug is secreted by members of the crew, who smuggle it on shore in small quantities. In other cases barrels of narcotics are dumped off the great liners as they pass south of Vancouver island. A speedy launch goes out, picks up the floating barrels, and takes them to some spot among the islands; in that way the drug is brought into the country. It is then given to men whose special and only business is to distribute it in large quantities. This business is mostly engaged in by Chinese and Japanese -not so much by the Japanese; I should not say that, but almost entirely by Chinese. The men engaged in the business, the men who sell the drugs, do not take it themselves, because they see the awful human wrecks which are the result of the use of narcotics. In a cold, calculating way, therefore, these men carry on this nefarious business, distributing the drugs throughout the community.
I would like to make it understood that these observations are not merely of a general character based on guesswork. The statements which I am about to make are founded upon official reports; upon information gathered by a citizens' committee appointed in the city of Vancouver, and upon information which I have collected from police authorities all the way from Vancouver to Halifax. Before giving some illustrations, let me explain, having touched upon the system of distribution, how the market is extended; how consumers are induced to take the drug; how they are inveigled into the practice until they become incapable of exercising their own will. What is known as " snow parties " are held. Chinamen of great wealth, engaged in this odious practice, and living in expensive, luxurious quarters, give parties at which white women, whom they employ, act as hostesses. Young girls are invited from about the city to take part in these so-called social functions-perhaps a dance, perhaps a card party; something of that kind. Interspersed among these young people are two or three addicts who are trained and whose business it is to inveigle other people into the use of narcotics. It is established beyond question that these parties take place periodically; that cocaine which is under strength is used to induce young people to acquire the habit. They are dared to take it, just as they would
be dared to jump across a ditch, or some other such trifling thing. They are dared to smell this stuff-a small quantity of it on a knife or spoon, and in that way the first step is taken. Before my remarks are finished, I hope, with proper reluctance and due regard to the dignity of this House, to describe to you the depths to which addicts to the drug can go and to point out that one of the chief causes of this terrible traffic arises out of the intercourse between China and Canada and through the medium of the Chinese who are engaged in it.
I received a letter last week from the secretary of the Asiatic Exclusion League of Canada, the honorary president of which is Brigadier General A. D. McRae. In his concluding words referring to the illegal drug traffic, the secretary says:
Here we have a disease, one of many directly traceable to the Astatic. Do away with the Asiatic and you have more than saved the souls and bodies of thousands of young men and women who are yearly being sent to a living hell and to the grave though their presence in Canada.
We have received certain information through the police officials. In Okalla prison, the largest in British Columbia, during the spring of 1921 out of 320 inmates 110 were drug addicts As I mentioned a moment ago, the citizens' committee, at the head of which is one of the best known citizens of Vancouver, employed nurses and detectives in their investigations. One of the men who assisted them was a theatre owner, an actor by profession and a man philanthropically disposed, who took advantage of his talent and ability as an actor to disguise himself in the dress of a drug addict. He went about Vancouver and other cities as well, and in that way he gained the confidence of some of the men engaged in this traffic and discovered things that the police would not have found out in a thousand years. He found that within a block of his own theatre he could buy, in an illegal way, large quantities of narcotic drugs from Chinese who carried on the business in their laundries, tailor shops, jewelry shops and establishments of that kind.
The results of these findings are exceedingly interesting. It was found that much of the illegal drug importation comes from China and Japan and that the drug traffic was increasing all over Canada. The police reports that we have gathered corroborate that. The drugs are usually retailed in Chinese stores, laundry or tailor shops, and many other kinds of establish-
ments. Now, in order that the House may be apprised of the extent to which this work is undertaken and the terrible condition of affairs brought about by it-and it applies not only to Vancouver; these drug addicts move all over the North American continent; we found the trade was carried on in all cities right through to Halifax-I will give you some actual cases. I will not, of course, give the names, but I will state the facts in the best manner that I can, considering the nature of the cases.
One girl of sixteen became a user of morphine and cocaine and was associated with Chinese, Japanese and Hindus. She appeared before the committee of investigation and on that very morning she had yielded to Chinese, Japanese and Hindus m order to gain $5.50 with which to purchase drugs. I have here a list of several pages of individual cases which were investigated, and the facts were not only testified to by the addicts themselves but confirmed by corroborative evidence. A girl of twenty-three, through the use of morphine and cocaine, had a child by a Chinaman named Pete Kong, a notorious Chinese drug peddler. She injected morphine into the infant with a hypo needle until it died- her mind being so distorted. I am only giving some of the cases from this list which it is possible to divulge under the circumstances. It was found that the traffic was indulged in not only by persons who might be designated as among the lower classes, the uninformed or uneducated classes, but through the machinations of this organization people from the very best families became addicts. Here is the case of a woman who was a clergyman's daughter, accomplished in music, well educated. She is a subject of morphine and cocaine; she is associated with Chinamen, and at present is serving a jail sentence. There is a large list of names here, but I will conclude with one case, that of a man who is related to one of the best known public men in Canada. He served with the Princess Pats overseas, was badly wounded, and on his return to Vancouver got into the Chinese quarter and became a dope fiend; now his business is going around and carrying out a function known as "filling orders". A telephone message comes in giving a certain order, and he goes out and fills it-administers a hypodermic injection for which he charges a dollar, or something of that kind. I have a case here of another woman who actually spends from $10 to $30 a day for drugs, and a Chinaman named J. J. Wing secured
from $2,500 to $3,000 worth of jewelry and furs from her. This came out in evidence in a lawsuit instituted by the woman for the recovery of the stolen articles.
In another list which I have before me there is an account of thirty-one cases which were investigated. They were taken in order as they came before the court, and twenty-one of the thirty-one cases were Chinese, so hon. members will see the extent to which these people are engaged in ' the traffic. From the moral and sociological standpoint alone, if from no other, these immigrants are of such a class that we would be a thousand times better off without them irrespective of their effect on our economic, commercial and industrial life.
In conclusion, I shall read a letter which was written to the secretary of the Asiatic Exclusion League of Canada, and forwarded to me. It is from a Japanese in Vancouver, and I read it in order to show the mental attitude of these people towards our country. Hon. members will note the irony and invective which runs through this letter.
Chas. L. Macauley,
306 Tower Bldg,
Dear Sir,-I read with interest "Danger".
That is the small publication issued on behalf of the Asiatic Exclusion League. The letter goes on:
I paid 20 cent. One hundred Japanese read it, very cheap.
The first step very good. Getting his start very poor insult to our government and very insulting to the individual Japanese.
We Japanese are a nation Hike the English, the Scotch, or the Irish, but not like the latter altogether, we have abolished bigotry. If you like we are like the German, we are a nation, we love our country first and foremost. We love riches, and all that riches will bring, but we will not sell our country for money.
Hon. gentlemen will not find a case where a Japanese has been caught selling his country for money.
You never hear of a Japanese traitor. In Canada you have many traitors. In the United States there are many traiitors because you are only people and have not nationhood.
That is the point. He goes on:
In China they allow all deceitful and crooked men to govern, so in Canada.
Topic: ORIENTAL ALIENS
Subtopic: RESOLUTION TO EXCLUDE FUTURE IMMIGRATION